Foot surgery treats medical and aesthetic issues. Bunions are bony lumps on the side of the foot and base of the big toe. Bunion surgery cuts out the bunion, realigns toe joints in the toes or replaces the joint with a metal plate and screw. Hammertoes affect the middle toes as they become clawed or permanently bent upward at their middle joint. Hammertoe surgery removes one of the two small joints within the toe or fuses the phalanges together to create better stability. Toes hanging off the edge of an open toe shoe can be shortened by removing joints from the toes. Short toes are lengthened by a structural bone graft or attaching an external fixator to bone segments to stretch the bone.